The water off the Carmelite Coast stays the same temperature year round, which has helped preserve the sword’s iron. Because the iron was oxidized, seashells and other marine life stuck to it like glue, Sharvit said. The discovery of ancient artifacts has increased as diving has gained popularity in Israel, he said.
In the Second Crusade, Muslim commanders defeated the Western Crusaders in Damascus, said Jonathan Phillips, professor of Crusader history at Royal Holloway, University of London.
During the Third Crusade, King Philip Augustus of France, King Richard I (also known as Richard the Lionheart of England) and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (also known as Frederick Barbarossa) , have undertaken to recapture Jerusalem. Saladin, the ruler of an area spanning modern Egypt, Syria and Iraq, conquered it in 1187, said Dr John Cotts, professor of medieval history at Whitman College in Walla Walla, Washington.
At the time, Pope Gregory VIII attempted to inspire Western Christians through “great emotional language” to take Jerusalem back from the Muslims, but ultimately the Muslim army maintained control of the city, Dr Cotts said. .
The sword would have been expensive to make at the time and considered a status symbol, Dr Phillips said. It makes sense that it was found in the sea, he said, as many battles took place near the beaches, where Christian soldiers landed and were sometimes attacked by Muslim forces.
“It could have been from a knight who fell into the sea or lost him in a fight at sea,” he said.
When Mr. Katzin found him, he said he feared he would be stolen or buried under quicksand, according to a statement from the authority.
Israel Antiquities Authority Director General Eli Escosido praised Katzin because “every ancient artifact found helps us piece together the historical puzzle of the Land of Israel.” Mr. Katzin received a certificate of appreciation for his good citizenship.