Anvisa said the players should have been quarantined upon arrival as they had spent time in the UK in the previous 14 days.
Although he has not named the four, the Premier League club players are Emiliano Buendia and Emiliano Martinez from Aston Villa and Giovani Lo Celso and Cristian Romero from Tottenham Hotspur.
Martinez, Lo Celso and Romero were each named in Argentina’s starting lineup, with Buendia the only player of the four to be missed.
“Anvisa considers the situation to be a serious health risk and has therefore asked local health authorities to determine the immediate quarantine of the players, who are barred from participating in any activity and should be prevented from remaining on Brazilian soil”, Anvisa said in a statement.
The Argentina team flew to Brazil on Friday, the day after their 3-1 victory over Venezuela in a World Cup qualifier in Caracas.
Under Brazilian rules, visitors who have stayed in the UK within 14 days of entering the country must self-quarantine for 14 days upon arrival.
Anvisa was told that the four players did not include this information on their immigration forms and said on Sunday that they confirmed the details provided were “false”.
The confusion arose just hours before the two big rivals faced off at Corinthians Arena – the match will start at 8 p.m. BST.
Spokesmen for the Argentina team and CONMEBOL – the South American Football Confederation – did not respond to requests for comment.