Now that the Hubble Space Telescope is back online and functioning properly, it has taken some remarkable images, including new stars emerging from a “stellar nursery” in deep space.
Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) took a photo of a “stellar nursery” in the constellation Gemini, about 5,000 light years from Earth.
The nursery, known as AFGL 5180, is made up of dust and gas and is one of many regions of space where stars are born.
Hubble Space Telescope captured image of new stars emerging from ‘stellar nursery’ 50 light years away
The AFGL 5180 nursery is made up of dust and gas and is located in the constellation Gemini. Gemini is made up of two stars: Pollux (left) and Castor (right). Pollux is 33 light years from Earth and Castor is 51 light years away
The image was taken by the Hubble Wide Field Camera, which takes visible and infrared light images
The photo was taken by Hubble’s WFC3, which takes visible and infrared light images, allowing young stars hidden in regions like AFGL 5180 to be seen more clearly.
HOW ARE THE STARS FORMED?
Stars form from dense molecular clouds – of dust and gas – in regions of interstellar space known as stellar nurseries.
A single molecular cloud, which contains mostly hydrogen atoms, can be thousands of times the mass of the sun.
They undergo turbulent motion with gas and dust moving over time, disrupting atoms and molecules, causing some regions to have more matter than others.
If enough gas and dust gather in an area, it begins to collapse under the weight of its own gravity.
As it begins to collapse, it slowly gets hotter and expands outward, absorbing more of the surrounding gas and dust.
At this point, when the region measures approximately 900 billion kilometers in diameter, it becomes a pre-stellar core and the process of starting to become a star.
Then, over the next 50,000 years, it will contract 92 billion kilometers in diameter to become the inner core of a star.
The excess material is ejected towards the poles of the star and a disk of gas and dust forms around the star, forming a protostar.
This material is then either incorporated into the star or expelled into a larger disk which will lead to the formation of planets, moons, comets and asteroids.
“Stars are born in dusty environments and although this dust gives spectacular images, it can prevent astronomers from seeing embedded stars in them,” NASA wrote in a statement.
The “Hubble WFC3” instrument is designed to capture detailed images in visible and infrared light, which means that young stars hidden in large regions of star formation like AFGL 5180 can be seen much more clearly. ”
In the photo, a “massive” star begins to form and break through the clouds with its cavities.
The light reaches Earth by illuminating the cavities, similar to a “beacon piercing through stormy clouds,” NASA added.
The constellation Gemini is made up of two stars: Pollux and Castor.
Pollux is 33 light years from Earth and is “an evolved red giant star twice as massive” as the sun, NASA said on its website.
Conversely, Castor is 51 light years away and is a blue main sequence star, 2.7 times the size of the sun.
Castor has at least two stellar companions, while Pollux has at least “one massive planet”.
In June, a group of cosmic cartographers created maps of stellar nurseries, revealing the diversity of different galaxies in the universe.
They examined regions of star formation in our part of the Universe, mapping over 100,000 nurseries in 90 nearby galaxies to provide insight into the origin of stars.
Stars are made up of clouds of dust and gas called molecular clouds or stellar nurseries.
Each stellar nursery in the universe can form thousands or even tens of thousands of new stars during its lifetime.
Stellar nurseries live up to 30 million years, a tiny amount of time on an astronomical scale, and they are not very efficient at turning gas into stars.
Scientists study the atmosphere of distant exoplanets using huge space satellites like Hubble
Distant stars and their orbiting planets often have different conditions than anything we see in our atmosphere.
To understand these new worlds and what they are made of, scientists must be able to detect what their atmosphere is.
They often do this using a telescope similar to NASA’s Hubble Telescope.
These huge satellites scan the sky and fix themselves on exoplanets that NASA says could be of interest.
Here, on-board sensors perform different forms of analysis.
One of the most important and useful is absorption spectroscopy.
This form of analysis measures the light that comes out of a planet’s atmosphere.
Each gas absorbs a slightly different wavelength of light, and when this happens, a black line appears over a full spectrum.
These lines correspond to a specific molecule, which indicates its presence on the planet.
They are often referred to as the Fraunhofer lines after the German astronomer and physicist who first discovered them in 1814.
By combining all of the different wavelengths of lights, scientists can determine all of the chemicals that make up a planet’s atmosphere.
The key is that what is missing provides the clues to find out what is present.
It is vitally important that this be done by space telescopes, as the Earth’s atmosphere would then interfere.
Absorbing chemicals into our atmosphere would distort the sample, which is why it is important to study the light before it has a chance to reach Earth.
This is often used to search for helium, sodium, and even oxygen in alien atmospheres.
This diagram shows how light passing from a star and through the atmosphere of an exoplanet produces Fraunhofer lines indicating the presence of key compounds such as sodium or helium.