The missile was fired from Admiral Gorshkov in the White Sea and hit a target on the Barents Sea coast, more than 350 km away.
President Vladimir Putin has previously touted the weapon as part of a new generation of missile systems.
The Defense Department said the missile traveled at about seven times the speed of sound before reaching its target.
“The tactical and technical characteristics of the Tsirkon missile were confirmed during tests,” the ministry said.
Mr. Putin previously said the missile would be capable of flying nine times the speed of sound and have a range of 620 miles (1,000 km), with the country hoping to install the missile system on its submarines and surface ships.
The military also tested the weapon in October, the president’s birthday, with Mr. Putin hailing it as a “big event” for Russia.
The President announced hypersonic weapons in 2018 in one of his most aggressive speeches in years, saying they could strike almost any point in the world and escape a US-built missile shield.
The following year, he threatened to deploy hypersonic missiles to ships and submarines that could wait outside U.S. territorial waters if America decided to deploy intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe.
Washington has not deployed such missiles in Europe, but Moscow fears it will.
In December 2020, Mr Putin said at his annual press conference that Russia develops hypersonic weapons in response to a new arms race, which he said was started by the United States.
The Russian leader wanted the United States to agree to a one-year extension of the START treaty, which maintains a nuclear balance between the two nations and expired in February.
The United States and Russia agreed to extend the treaty in February at a meeting in Geneva.