Police used tear gas to disperse protesters in several French cities, including the capital, Paris and Lyon.
The measures, announced on Monday, were part of an attempt by President Emmanuel Macron to tackle a new wave of infections.
Critics say the measures trample on freedoms and discriminate against those who do not want to be vaccinated.
French citizens marched Wednesday in several cities to denounce these measures as a “dictatorship”.
In Paris, a few hundred demonstrators took part in a rally at Place de la République, before marching through the city chanting “freedom”, while some badges said “No to the sanitary pass”.
Many have expressed anger at the new measures that will force health care workers and other professions to get vaccinated.
The Lyon police fired tear gas canisters in an attempt to contain a large demonstration in the city center. At least 1,400 people, mostly young people, had gathered to protest Macron’s announcement, police said.
According to the prefecture, demonstrators threw projectiles at the police before the authorities responded with tear gas.
Hundreds of people also gathered in Montpellier, Marseille, Perpignan and Rouen to protest the restrictions.
In Toulouse, a small rally was organized by several groups of “yellow vests” Wednesday morning, while in Annecy, a small group of people broke into the premises of the town hall without causing damage.
Between 150 and 200 people remained in the courtyard of the building for more than an hour, said the prefecture of Haute-Savoie.
French Interior Minister Gerald Darmanin said on Twitter that he condemned the Annecy incident “in the strongest terms”.
Wednesday’s protests took place as France celebrated Bastille Day, to mark the turning point of the French Revolution in 1789.