Known for its vast monuments, including the incredible Great Pyramid of Giza, the ancient civilization continues to woo experts and the public. It is believed to have started around 3100 BC, archaeologists have discovered evidence 700 miles south of Cairo for what is believed to be its roots. At the Nabta Playa site, they found massive stone circles that line up with the Sun and stars to mark the seasons and were said to have been used as an ancient calendar.
She said: “This has been described as the first carved stone monument in Egypt. It dates from around 5000 BC.
“This piece of sandstone was mined over a mile from where it was finally found.
“It certainly suggests a sense of community where people were already working together to achieve a desired goal.
The Egyptologist then detailed what the stone carving is supposed to represent.
She added: “Some people think it’s actually a cow – with its big hind legs and that sculpted head.
“Now the cow was an integral part of these people’s daily lives, it was a source of meat, milk and blood – essential sources of protein for good health.
“Yet the cow was so important that they chose to take her to the Hereafter with them to support them spiritually.
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“Although her image evolves from a realistic animal to a female face with cow’s ears, this may be her very first incarnation.
“She is just one of many Egyptian gods and goddesses, they just couldn’t get enough. “
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came in part from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile Valley for agriculture.
Predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a denser population, as well as social and cultural development.
Egypt reached the height of its power in the New Kingdom, ruling much of Nubia and a significant part of the Near East.
During its history, it has been invaded or conquered by a number of foreign powers, including the Hyksos, Libyans, Nubians, Assyrians, Achaemenid Persians and Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great.
The Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom, formed following the death of Alexander, ruled Egypt until 30 BC.