The BAFTA contestant, who starred in the BBC drama One Years And Years, said the argument started after the driver refused to drop her off outside the accessible entrance to Euston Station.
The 33-year-old man, who has spina bifida, said he told him the heavy traffic made it “too difficult” and “it would take too long”.
He then claimed he saw her get up and “knew I could walk” before demanding the fare, although the trip was prepaid, she added.
During the argument, Madeley said he took his wheelchair, put it in the trunk of his car and refused to return it.
She wrote on Twitter: “When I tried to explain this on the street he got very agitated and in sheer frustration HE TAKEN MY WHEELCHAIR from behind me without warning and took it to put it in. the trunk of his taxi, leaving me on the side of the road.
“When I asked him to get it back, he refused. “
She added that she was traveling with her mother who was able to retrieve the driver’s chair, “although he did his best to stop her”.
Transport for London (TfL) called the incident “totally appalling” and said it would investigate.
Graham Robinson, TfL’s managing director for taxis and private hire, said in a statement: “It looks like a very appalling incident.
“We have contacted Ruth for further details so that we can conduct a full and urgent investigation. “
Madeley said she reported the incident to the metropolitan police but was told it was not a “hate crime”.
When I tried to explain this on the street he got very agitated and in sheer frustration he took MY WHEELCHAIR from behind me without warning and took it away to put it in the trunk of his taxi , leaving me on the side of the road. When I asked him to get it back, he refused …
– Ruth Madeley (@ruth_madeley) July 14, 2021
“I was closed and I felt like I was fussing over nothing,” she added.
Metropolitan Police said no investigation was underway.
The incident happened last month on the day it was announced that Madeley would star in the BBC factual drama Two Independence Day? How Disabled Rights Were Won, co-written by BAFTA-winning writer and playwright Jack Thorne.
Screenwriter Russell T Davies, TV presenter Lucy Alexander and actress Anna Nightingale were among those who shared messages of support.
Richard Kramer, CEO of the Sense Disability Charity, said: “What happened to Ruth is shocking and should be investigated.
“Unfortunately, too often we hear about people with disabilities who have been discriminated against.
“We need to engage as a society to tackle inequalities and create a more inclusive society, removing barriers that people with disabilities face. ”