The Manchester City defender, born in France, has made a total of 51 appearances for Les Bleus among young people, but has yet to play for the senior team.
He was born in the French Basque Country but was eligible to play for Spain after obtaining a Spanish passport.
“Player Aymeric Laporte is eligible to play for the representative teams of RFEF – Spanish Football Association with immediate effect,” he said in a statement.
Players can make the switch as long as they have not played more than three games for that country by the age of 21 and have not participated in a World Cup or continental tournament.
The move will be a big boost for Luis Enrique, who is expected to name the defender to his 26-man squad for this summer’s final on May 21.
The inclusion of Laporte would significantly strengthen Spain’s backline, which already has Sergio Ramos, Eric Garcia, Pau Torres and Inigo Martinez.
Laporte has made 27 appearances for Pep Guardiola’s Man City this season and scored the decisive goal in their triumph over Tottenham in the Carabao Cup final.
He was last called up to the France squad in August 2019, although he retired two days later with a knee injury that ruled him out for much of the season.
France boss Didier Deschamps suggested as recently as November that Laporte still could not be selected.
Asked why Chelsea defender Kurt Zouma was called up for their international matches at the time, Deschamps said: “There is competition everywhere.
“Kurt has been with us for a while, he’s been called up a few times but hasn’t played a lot.
“If I choose him, it’s because I think he’s better than the others because of what he does at Chelsea.
“He’s had a few injuries in a row, but now he’s been very fit for a while, he’s very calm, so he’s here.