The refugees were spotted in a large wooden boat by a local fisherman before landing on Ujung Blang beach in Aceh province in the early hours of Monday, police said.
The group, which had reportedly been on the water for six months, included 181 women and 14 children, according to a police chief in Aceh.
Junaidi Yahya, head of the Red Cross in the town of Lhokseumawe, said they were being held in a temporary place.
It comes after another boat of 94 Rohingya Musulmans were found off Aceh in June.
Hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims have fled majority Buddhists Myanmar due to military repression.
Many live in densely populated refugee camps Bangladesh, but others regularly travel by boat to countries in Southeast Asia.
Major concerns were raised regarding coronavirus outbreaks in Bangladeshi camps, overcrowded and suffering from poor hygiene standards.