He tested positive for the virus on July 7 after having a fever and spent three weeks in isolation at the Presidential Palace.
On Thursday, in his first public protest since his illness, he greeted a crowd of supporters in northeastern Piaui state, removing his face mask to loud cheers.
On the same day, the president’s office announced that his wife had tested positive for the virus.
Mr Bolsonaro later revealed that he was feeling unwell again and was taking antibiotics for an infection he called “moldy lungs” caused by inactivity during his quarantine.
Mr Bolsonaro argues that stay-at-home measures are unnecessarily hurting the economy.
Instead, he advocates the drug hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for the virus and took it himself when infected, despite numerous studies showing that it has no benefit against Covid-19.