University of Oxford / AstraZeneca
The Oxford University vaccine is delivered via a chimpanzee virus, called a vaccine vector. The vector contains the genetic code for the protein peaks found on the coronavirus and triggers a strong immune response in the human body. The vaccine is in a combined Phase 2/3 trial in the UK and recently went through phase 3 trials in South Africa and Brazil.
The American biotech company Moderna is developing a candidate vaccine that uses messenger RNA (or mRNA for short) to induce the body to produce viral proteins on its own. No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved for an infectious disease, and Moderna has never brought a product to the market. But vaccine supporters say it might be easier to mass produce than traditional vaccines.
The Chinese company Sinovac is developing a vaccine based on inactivated Covid-19 particles. The vaccine has shown a promising safety profile in the early stages of testing and is now entering phase 3 trials in Brazil.
Wuhan Institute of Biologics / Sinopharm
Beijing Biological Institute / Sinopharm
BioNTech / Fosun Pharma / Pfizer
Cadila Healthcare Limited
CanSino Biologics Inc./ Beijing Biotechnology Institute
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical / Institut de
Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc
Inovio Pharmaceuticals / Institut international des vaccins
Janssen pharmaceutical companies
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Osaka University / AnGes / Takara Bio
University of Queensland / CSL / Seqirus
Gamaleya Research Institute
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax
People’s Liberation Army (APL) / Walvax Biotech Academy of Military Sciences.
Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation / NIAID / Dynavax
University of Melbourne / Murdoch Children’s Research Institute
The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is conducting a phase 3 trial using an almost 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine. The vaccine is not believed to protect directly against Covid-19, but could stimulate the body’s non-specific immune response.