Covid vaccine tracker: when will we have a coronavirus vaccine? | World news

0
57


Preclinical

vaccines not yet in human trials

139

Phase 1

vaccines in small-scale safety trials

25

Phase 2

vaccines in expanded safety trials

17

Phase 3

vaccines in large-scale efficacy trials

7

Approved

vaccines approved for general use

0

Source: WHO. Last update August 4

Researchers around the world are rushing to develop a vaccine against Covid-19, with more than 140 candidate vaccines now being tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Vaccines normally require years of testing and additional time to be produced on a large scale, but scientists hope to develop a vaccine for the coronavirus within 12 to 18 months.

Vaccines mimic the virus – or part of the virus – that they protect against, stimulating the immune system to develop antibodies. They must meet higher safety standards than other drugs because they are given to millions of healthy people.

How are vaccines tested?

in the preclinical stage In tests, researchers give the vaccine to animals to see if it triggers an immune response.

In phase 1 In clinical trials, the vaccine is given to a small group of people to determine if it is safe and to find out more about the immune response it elicits.

In phase 2, the vaccine is being given to hundreds of people so that scientists can learn more about its safety and correct dosage.

In phase 3, the vaccine is given to thousands of people to confirm its safety – including its rare side effects – and its effectiveness. These trials involve a control group that receives a placebo.

Vaccines in clinical trials

Current phase

Phase completed

University of Oxford / AstraZeneca

The Oxford University vaccine is delivered via a chimpanzee virus, called a vaccine vector. The vector contains the genetic code for the protein peaks found on the coronavirus and triggers a strong immune response in the human body. The vaccine is in a combined Phase 2/3 trial in the UK and recently went through phase 3 trials in South Africa and Brazil.

The American biotech company Moderna is developing a candidate vaccine that uses messenger RNA (or mRNA for short) to induce the body to produce viral proteins on its own. No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved for an infectious disease, and Moderna has never brought a product to the market. But vaccine supporters say it might be easier to mass produce than traditional vaccines.

The Chinese company Sinovac is developing a vaccine based on inactivated Covid-19 particles. The vaccine has shown a promising safety profile in the early stages of testing and is now entering phase 3 trials in Brazil.

Wuhan Institute of Biologics / Sinopharm

Beijing Biological Institute / Sinopharm

BioNTech / Fosun Pharma / Pfizer

Cadila Healthcare Limited

CanSino Biologics Inc./ Beijing Biotechnology Institute

Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical / Institut de

Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc

Inovio Pharmaceuticals / Institut international des vaccins

Janssen pharmaceutical companies

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

Osaka University / AnGes / Takara Bio

University of Queensland / CSL / Seqirus

Gamaleya Research Institute

Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax

People’s Liberation Army (APL) / Walvax Biotech Academy of Military Sciences.

Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation / NIAID / Dynavax

University of Melbourne / Murdoch Children’s Research Institute

The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is conducting a phase 3 trial using an almost 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine. The vaccine is not believed to protect directly against Covid-19, but could stimulate the body’s non-specific immune response.

Source: WHO. Last update August 4

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