University of Oxford / AstraZeneca
The University of Oxford vaccine is administered via a chimpanzee virus, called a vaccine vector. The vector contains the genetic code for the protein peaks found on the coronavirus and triggers a strong immune response in the human body. The vaccine is in a combined Phase 2/3 trial in the UK and recently underwent phase 3 trials in South Africa and Brazil.
BioNTech / Fosun Pharma / Pfizer
Wuhan Institute of Biologics / Sinopharm
The American biotech company Moderna is developing a candidate vaccine that uses messenger RNA (or mRNA) to induce the body to produce viral proteins on its own. No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved for an infectious disease, and Moderna has never brought a product to market. But vaccine supporters say it might be easier to mass produce than traditional vaccines.
The Chinese company Sinovac is developing a vaccine based on inactivated Covid-19 particles. The vaccine has shown a promising safety profile in the early stages of testing and is now entering phase 3 trials in Brazil.
Beijing Institute of Biologics / Sinopharm
CanSino Biologics Inc./ Beijing Biotechnology Institute
Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc
Cadila Healthcare Limited
Osaka University / AnGes / Takara Bio
Inovio Pharmaceuticals / Institut international des vaccins
Janssen pharmaceutical companies
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical / Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
University of Queensland / CSL / Seqirus
People’s Liberation Army (APL) / Walvax Biotech Academy of Military Sciences.
Institut Pasteur / Themis / Univ. de Pittsburgh CVR / Merck Sharp & Dohme
Finlay Vaccine Institute, Cuba
Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation / NIAID / Dynavax
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax
ReiThera / LEUKOCARE / Univercells
Gamaleya Research Institute
University of Melbourne / Murdoch Children’s Research Institute
The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is conducting a phase 3 trial using an almost 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine. The vaccine is not believed to protect directly against Covid-19, but could stimulate the body’s non-specific immune response.