Football commentators are six times more likely to talk about dark-skinned players when discussing how powerful they are, according to an innovative study on racial prejudice.
The result of the study, supplemented by the Danish research company RunRepeat in association with the Professional Footballers’ Association and the largest of its kind in the English language, reveals clear evidence of systemic bias within commentary football. as a time when the treatment of blacks, Asians and ethnic minorities (Bame) communities is under the microscope.
Eighty matches from Europe in four main leagues – Premier League, Serie A, La Liga and Ligue 1 – were analyzed from the 2019/20 season, with a variety of broadcasters represented across the UK , from the United States and Canada, including Sky Sports, BT Sport, NBC, BeinSport, ESPN and Turner Sports.
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It has revealed real reasons for concern that the views expressed by leading sports commentators regarding Bame players are vulnerable to racial bias, regardless of intent, with aspects of speed, power and pace of work perceived differently when compared to evaluations of this type of lighter skin tone of players.
Focusing on different 15 minute segments of around 643 individual players of various races and skin tones, it has been found that commentators are 6.59 times more likely to speak of dark skinned players when talking about diet, and 3.38 times more likely to be the discussion of speed. The presence of bias meant that 86.76 percent of all positive comments about eating aimed at players’ dark skin tone, with 84.17% for speed.
The study also found that commentators are 60.4 percent more likely to be describing a player with less skin tone when talking about work ethics, with 62.6% of l intelligence praise that goes in the same group of players. In comparison, 63.33% of critical intelligence aimed at players’ dark skin tone.
Two-thirds of all comments regarding game quality were also lighter skin tone of players, with 67.57% of negative comments regarding players’ dark skin tone.
While commentators may not be aware of the differences in how they describe players by their skin color, the impact of these biases is considerable. Danny McLoughlin, director of research at RunRepeat and the study’s lead researcher, believes the commentary is “a pryzm for everyone who watches football” that influences many aspects of life, from conversations between friends to potential winnings and contracts that players are able to commission. If a player is labeled work-shy or lacking in intelligence via match commentary, it can have significant repercussions for the player further down the line.
IFP Executive Equality Jason Lee asked broadcasters and commentators to increase their efforts to combat racial prejudice, and called on them to offer prejudice training to raise awareness of the importance of using their language who can convey and reinforce stereotypically racist views.
“To remedy the real impact of structural racism, we have to recognize and address racial prejudice,” said Lee. “This study shows an obvious bias in how we describe the attributes of footballers based on the color of their skin.
“Commentators help shape the perception we hold of each player, deepening any racial prejudice already held by the viewer.
“If you don’t have people exchanging ideas and listening to what is said, and you have not listened, how are you going to understand that what you are doing is offending people if nobody’s there hard to tell you, ‘It’s not good.’
A follow-up study was planned to analyze the issue of “stacking”, which was common in American football where influential thinking posts such as the quarterback went white, athletic readers dependent on positions such as running backwards and catcher have been allocated to more black players.
The same can be said in football, where the role of captain is mainly given to white players, as are the “creative” or “thought” positions such as attacking midfielders, center-backs and goalkeepers, while dark complexion players regularly fill positions where athletic ability is an advantage.
Of the 80 clubs involved in the study, only 15 of them currently have a Bame captain – 10 who are in Ligue 1 with five in the Premier League, one in Serie A, and not a single Bame captain in La Liga.
“When you play football and someone is painting the image that you are powerful, you are fast, you are aggressive – I mean they are big strokes, but you are not saying “Brave, smart, creative, you’re not using the terminology,” Lee added.
“Already he’s alive to this stereotype of black athletes – you can’t always say that a black athlete is going to be fast and is going to be strong.
“If you continue to stigmatize people and, saying that, and the others, how is the athlete going to go from training and the playing field and to be taken seriously as perhaps a coach, manager or some other position of strength? ”
To provide control of the category ‘game events’ which were based solely on fact rather than commentary opinions – were also recorded, with the criticism split at 50-50 between the two skin tones and the slightly praise in favor of lighter skin tone of the players. However, when the obstinate comment was recorded, it is clear that racial bias is present in the statements.
Because 1.361 of the total 2,073 observations were made light towards the skin tone of the players, a multiplier of 1.9 to give a total of 1,362 in order for the two fairly compared.
The researchers also used the 20 skin tones marked by Football Manager in 2020, since it fixes a predetermined class that removes any interpretation of a player’s ethnicity or race and judges them skin color comments. Classes 1 to 11 have been classified as “lighter skin tone”, with the rest of 12-20 making up players with ‘darker skin tone’. With the total sample size of 643 players, 433 were classified as “players with more skin tone” and 210 were classified as “players with dark skin tone.
The report says: “The Players have been united in their support for the Black Lives Matter movement, sending a strong message about equality.
“However, the players themselves still have to navigate systemically racist structures, despite their important platforms and professional success. This racial study bias makes the nuances of this structure apparent.
“We now need everyone in football, including commentators and broadcasters, to examine the role they play in promoting implicit biases towards people with darker skin tones.”